Flat washers are usually thin pieces of various shapes used to reduce friction, prevent leakage, isolate, prevent loosening, or distribute pressure. Such components are found in many materials and structures to perform a variety of similar functions. Restricted by the material and process of threaded fasteners, the bearing surface of fasteners such as bolts is not large, so in order to reduce the compressive stress of the bearing surface and protect the surface of the connected parts, washers are used. In order to prevent the loosening of the connection pair, anti-loose spring washers, multi-tooth lock washers, round nut stop washers and saddle, wave and conical elastic washers are used. The flat washer is mainly used to reduce the pressure. When some parts are tightened with a large axial force, it is easy to press the washer into a disc shape. At this time, it can be solved by changing the material and increasing the hardness.